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中国留学生秋季可以安心在美国读书

作者:乔桥   来源:中美印象   字体放大  字体缩小

《美中关系快报》第58期
      7月6日,美国移民和海关执法局突然宣布,如果国际学生所在的大学秋季完全改为在线上课,在美国攻读学位的国际学生将必须离开美国,否则他们将被驱逐出境。秋季入学的国际学生如果所去学校秋季只上网课,他们也不会拿到签证。

今天(7月14日),在波士顿联邦法院,特朗普政府宣布撤销这一行政命令。在美的中国留学生可以不必担心上网课会被遣返,已经拿到签证即将来美国读书的中国留学生可以放心来美国读书。

本站在7月7日的《美中关系快报》中指出,“这一举动也许是为了迎合特朗普政府要求各级政府、企业和所有因疫情而改变经营方式的机构蔑视疫情、尽快复工、复产和复课的倾向,给美国高等教育界施加压力,迫使它们秋季恢复正常授课。”

特朗普政府这一行政命令出炉不到两天,即被哈佛大学(有国际学生5000)和麻省理工学院(有国际学生4000)告上法庭。位于波士顿的东北大学随后也加入了诉讼。随后,20多个州的检察长和硅谷高科技公司也加入了诉讼。

今天下午是联邦法院就此事第一次开庭。出人意料的是,在开庭前几分钟,巴洛斯法官宣布她接到通知,联邦政府决定撤销7月6日公布的决定。换句话说,如果没有大专院校、地方政府和企业的合力与合理的抗争,特朗普政府不会这么快就改变自己的决定。在接受一家媒体采访时,前美中全国贸易委员会主席柯白(Robert A. Kapp)说,他根本不能想象特朗普政府怎么会做出这样荒谬的决定。

在美国读书的国际学生人数这几年一直在100万左右,对美国经济的影响大约在410亿美元左右。截至去年11月,在美国的中国留学生有接近37万,人数在所有国际学生中名列前茅。目前不清楚有多少中国留学生在疫情期间返回了中国。

因美国疫情目前依然失控,中小学纷纷宣布秋季改为线上授课。昨天全美最大的两个学区,加州洛杉矶学区和圣地亚哥学区,做出了线上上课的决定。美国各大专院校在秋季要么完全线上上课,要么采取线上线下结合的模式。
     美国奉行行政、立法和司法三权分立的制度,总统的权力很大,但是大不到无法无天的程度。特朗普政府的一系列行政命令均被受影响的个人、机构或组织告上法庭。最近高法就特朗普的报税纪录能不能被公开做出判决,首先是宣布在美国,没有一个人,包括总统,可以凌驾于法律之上。因此,他的报税纪录应该也必须公布。但是鉴于三权分立,国会的要求必须慎重考量。高法在宣布特朗普没有特权之后又把如何公布报税纪录的决定打回低一级的法院继续考虑。但这并不是说政府对司法没有任何影响力。美国司法部曾多次干预司法程序,要求对已经被判有罪的特朗普的助手从宽处理。华为因美国政府的打压提起诉讼,但法院的判决似乎遥遥无期。如果最近白宫做出限制抖音和微信的决定,这两家公司也可以通过法律程序反击。

Trump ministration backs off ICE rule requiring international students to take classes in person during pandemic

Washington Times, July 14, 2020

The Trump ministration is dropping a much-criticized plan to require international college students to leave the United States unless they are enrolled in the fall term in at least one face-to-face class, according to federal court records.

The abrupt reversal, first disclosed Tuesday in federal court in Boston, came a little more than a week after U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement issued an edict that stunned U.S. higher education leers and students worldwide.

Under the July 6 policy from ICE, international students enrolled in U.S. colleges and universities for the fall semester faced a mandate to take at least one course in person. Those students, ICE said, “may not take a full online course lo and remain in the United States.”

That mandate posed a major obstacle to plans for online teaching and learning that colleges are developing to respond to the novel coronavirus pandemic. In the spring, the federal government h given schools much more leeway to teach international students online.

Now, according to electronic notes taken at a U.S. District Court hearing, the July 6 policy will be rescinded.

Harvard, MIT sue Trump ministration to protect student visas, escalating fight over online learning

Harvard, pictured here, joined MIT in suing the Trump ministration over a rule barring international students from coming to the United States to attend colleges offering only online classes. (am Glanzman/Bloomberg News)

By Susan Svrluga and Nick Anderson

July 8, 2020 at 8:17 p.m. EDT

Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology sued the Trump ministration Wednesday over an order that would require international students to take classes in person this fall, despite rising coronavirus caselos that are complicating efforts by colleges and universities to offer in-person learning.

The lawsuit represented a swift response to an unexpected order issued this week by the federal government, as universities rush to protect the status of thousands of international students. It also marks a new battle line in the war between President Trump and education leers over how to safely reopen schools in the midst of his reelection bid.

“We will pursue this case vigorously so that our international students — and international students at institutions across the country — can continue their studies without the threat of deportation,” Harvard’s president, Lawrence S. Bacow, told the Harvard community Wednesday.

On Wednesday, Northeastern University in Massachusetts joined the suit, with Joseph E. Aoun, the school’s president, saying the new guidance “creates chaos for international students and has the effect of weakening American higher education — one of our nation’s signature strengths.”

On Monday, the federal Student and Exchange Visitor Program announced that visas would not be issued to students enrolled in schools that are fully online this fall. Under the rule, those students would be barred from entering the country. And to keep their visas, students already in the United States would need to leave the country or transfer to a school with in-person instruction.

The rule has not been published yet, but the guidance issued Monday stunned university officials and panicked students. Though international students were previously required to take classes in person, the government h offered schools and students flexibility this spring, after the pandemic shut down most campuses. And it h said that the new guidance would remain in effect for the duration of the emergency.

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So as university officials worked to finalize fall plans, many assumed that their international students would be allowed in the country even if they weren’t in the classroom. With cases rising across the country, most colleges are at least prepared to switch to fully virtual instruction if needed. Others, including Harvard and the sprawling California State University System, have alrey announced plans to offer little to no in-person instruction.

Harvard has about 5,000 international students, and MIT 4,000. In their lawsuit, the universities argue that U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s decision was designed to force universities to conduct in-person classes, part of an apparent political strategy from the Trump ministration to pressure schools, from kindergarten to graduate school, to fully reopen this fall, even as virus cases soar.

The lawsuit, filed in the U.S. District Court in Massachusetts, seeks a temporary restraining order that would quickly stop the government from enforcing the policy. The schools argue that the rule violates the administrative Procedure Act, which governs rulemaking by federal agencies.

The Department of Homeland Security did not immediately respond to requests for comment. Carissa Cutrell, a spokeswoman for ICE, said the agency “is unable to provide further comment due to pending litigation.

The lawsuit cites remarks from acting deputy secretary of homeland security Ken Cuccinelli on Tuesday, in which he said the directive “will … encourage schools to reopen.”

The decision also reflects the administration’s continued efforts to limit and reduce the presence of international students in the country, the lawsuit argues.

The Trump ministration contends the new policy will provide more flexibility for colleges and universities. Cuccinelli indicated Tuesday that international students could remain in the United States as long as they receive at least some face-to-face instruction.

“Anything short of 100 percent online classes,” he told CNN in an interview. Cuccinelli denied that the ministration was seeking to “force” universities to offer in-person teaching. But he acknowledged that the ministration wants to spur movement in that direction. “This is now setting the rules for one semester, which we’ll finalize later this month that will, again, encourage schools to reopen,” he told CNN.

The ICE ruling frightened international students, who worried they risked deportation if their schools were not providing classes in person.

“That’s horrifying — I couldn’t sleep,” said Mita Rawal, who’s studying pharmacology at the University of Georgia. “It’s not just me, it’s my son, he goes to school here. If I h to pack up my bags and go to Nepal,” she said, and then broke off.

She h already been through a tumultuous spring and summer, with a sudden need for a computer for her own studies and a secondhand laptop for her 5-year-old son’s schooling, paid for with the help of an emergency grant from a nonprofit. Her dissertation was put on hold, and she was unable to travel home for the summer.

And then news broke from ICE. “I h not anticipated in my wildest dreams that I would be in this situation,” she said.

Outraged faculty are mobilizing to defend international students. Some are brainstorming ways to work around the ministration’s policy, creating makeshift classes for international students.

Dana R. Fisher, a sociology professor at the University of Maryland at College Park, said she woke up Wednesday to 25 emails from terrified students. She h fielded even more frantic emails the day before. On Twitter, she offered an independent-study course to any student who needs to take an in-person class this semester. Dozens are interested, she said.

Sarah Parkinson, an assistant professor of political science and international studies at Johns Hopkins University, said there is talk among professors about holding improvised face-to-face sessions with anyone who might need them to ensure they don’t get caught in a crackdown. Holding a class session in a park with a few students, sitting six feet apart, could be an option.

“It’s not even a question. Of course you’d do it,” Parkinson said.International students must take classes in person to stay in the country legally this fall, ICE announces

The administration’s policy prompted an array of higher education leers to defend the ideals of international education and student exchange. Millions of students have come to the United States in the past century, they said, an extraordinary pipeline of talent that has promoted democracy around the world and helped build the U.S. economy.

MIT’s president, L. Rafael Reif, told campus Wednesday: “Our international students now have many questions — about their visas, their health, their families and their ability to continue working toward an MIT degree. Unspoken, but unmistakable, is one more question: Am I welcome?

“At MIT, the answer, unequivocally, is yes.” He wrote about his own memories of the anxiety of arriving in the United States to study, “excited to advance my education, but separated from my family by thousands of miles. I also know that welcoming the world’s brightest, most talented and motivated students is an essential American strength.”

For the past several years, according to the Institute of International Education, the United States has hosted a little more than 1 million international students.

Fall typically heralds the arrival of a new group of more than a quarter-million. But educators worry the pandemic could le to a sharp drop, slashing tuition revenue for colleges across the country. The ministration’s new policy ds to those concerns.

“The present efforts by American leadership to eliminate this truly successful, strategic asset of American economic and cultural leadership is a deeply misguided mistake,” Michael M. Crow, president of Arizona State University, which has more than 10,000 international students, wrote in an email.

Matyás Kohout arrived in the United States from the Czech Republic wearing Converse sneakers covered in American flags. Coming from a formerly Communist country, where his parents h been unable to go to college, re Western literature or travel outside the country, the United States was a dream for him.

He even shared a birthday, he said: July 4.

He got a glimpse of fireworks as best he could from a window while quarantined this year. Two days later, he saw the news about visas. At first, he thought it was a mistake. When he realized it was true, he tried to figure out what would happen if George Washington University Law School moved to online classes partway through the semester. Would he have to leave? What would he do with his furniture? Could he come back?

He hopes the lawsuit will be successful. But he said his thinking has changed about the United States. “I find a lot of obstacles,” he said, and over time, those began to make him wonder. He loves the school and wants to complete his law degree. But he also wonders if his future is in Europe.


发布时间:2020年07月14日 来源时间:2020年07月14日
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