尼克松访华50周年

尼克松访华趣事:记者团人手一条秋裤来北京,结果发现暖气太足热懵了……

作者:赵旭   来源:中国日报双语新闻  已有 480人浏览 字体放大  字体缩小

1972年2月21至28日,美国总统尼克松访问中国,度过了被他称之为“改变世界的一周”。今年二月是尼克松访华50周年,《中国日报》记者采访了两位当年参与这个重要历史时刻的美方人员,带你重温中美外交的转折点和那些老照片背后的故事……

Between February 21 and 28, 1972, former US president Richard Nixon visited China, in what he dubbed, upon leaving the country, “the week that changed the world”. This February marks the 50th anniversary of the historic visit, the details of which have never failed to fascinate.

洛德的幸运和“不幸”

作为尼克松国家安全顾问基辛格(Henry Kissinger)的特别助理,84岁的温斯顿·洛德(Winston Lord)全程参与了尼克松访华的前期谋划和准备工作。1972年2月21日,他和尼克松乘坐同一架飞机抵达北京。

Special assistant to Nixon’s national security adviser Henry Kissinger, Winston Lord was a core member of the preparation team for the presidential visit. He was on the same plane with the president as they landed at Beijing’s Capital Airport in the late morning of Feb 21, 1972.

1972年2月21日,美国总统理查德· 尼克松到达北京,周恩来总理前往机场迎接。图源:中国日报

在尼克松抵达北京的当天下午2点20分左右,周恩来突然出现在尼克松一行下榻的钓鱼台国宾馆,告诉他毛主席想和他见面。尼克松和基辛格随即出发去毛泽东的住所,临行前基辛格带上了洛德。“我对此感激不尽。” 洛德在采访时回忆说。于是洛德成为了此次会面中除尼克松和基辛格在外的唯一一位美方人士。

Around 2:20 pm, Chinese premier Zhou Enlai turned up at the Diaoyutai State Guesthouse and told president Nixon that Chairman Mao wanted to see him “immediately”. “Kissinger, to my everlasting gratitude, asked me to go (together with him),” said Lord, 84.

1972年2月21日,毛泽东与尼克松会面。左起:周恩来、唐闻生(译员)、毛泽东、尼克松、基辛格、洛德、王海容
图源:中国日报/温斯顿·洛德供图

会面的照片第二天登上了世界各大报纸的头版,但是坐在尼克松和外交部礼宾司副司长王海容之间的洛德,却被从照片右侧裁切掉了。

“尼克松和基辛格对中方说:‘请把洛德先生从所有照片中剪掉,并对他出席这次会议的事保密’。”洛德回忆道。“中方显然对此感到困惑,但他们还是接受了这个请求。我当然对此很失望。”

温斯顿·洛德

然而洛德说他了解总统和博士的顾虑。“他们认为,如此重要的会面,国家安全顾问(基辛格)和总统一起出席了,而同时随总统访问的国务卿却没有参加,甚至完全不知情,这实在是让国务卿很没有面子的事情;现在如果让大家知道基辛格的年轻助理也一同去见了毛泽东,那无疑会是雪上加霜。”

洛德说,国务卿和他所领导的美国国务院被排除在会面之外的一个重要原因是“基辛格,尤其是尼克松,对国务院心存疑虑”。“尼克松觉得他们更官僚化,没有魄力,无法采取大胆行动。当然尼克松也非常担心与毛泽东会谈的内容会被泄露出去。”

Pictures of the meeting hit the front pages of all the world’s major newspapers, but Lord, sitting beside Kissinger on the picture’s far right, was missing. “Nixon and Kissinger told the Chinese: ‘Please cut out Mr Lord from all of the photographs and keep secret that he was at this meeting’,” Lord said. “The Chinese clearly must have been puzzled by this, but they readily went along with the request. I, of course, was disappointed.” But he understood the rationale, he said. “They figured that it was humiliating enough that the national security adviser was with the president at this historic meeting, but the secretary of state was not. Now to have a third, younger person there was just too much.” The reason behind the exclusion, Lord said, was that “Kissinger and above all Nixon were suspicious of the State Department”. “Nixon felt that they were more bureaucratic and incapable of bold moves. They were also very worried about leaks.”

1973年2月,洛德(右)陪同基辛格(左)访华,与毛泽东握手。图源:中国日报/温斯顿·洛德供图

在尼克松访华一周年的1973年2月,当洛德陪同基辛格再次来到中国时,周恩来将一张原始的、包括他在内的尼克松与毛泽东会面的照片送给了他。

On his visit in February 1973, Zhou Enlai gave Lord the original picture taken during the Nixon-Mao meeting, which attests to his presence.

回首与毛泽东的那次会面,洛德说:“毛的谈话不乏自嘲且很率性,常常随意地从一个话题转换到另一个话题,但这并不妨碍他明确表达观点和目的。他不会像周恩来那样使用措辞优雅的长句,他的语言中充满类比和隐喻,是寥寥数笔的大写意,这有时会让我们摸不着头脑。但是我们很快意识到,尽管只是‘寥寥数笔’,他却已经制定出了大的战略方向,具体细节的阐述和实施则交给周恩来。”

“很明显,尼克松和毛都非常认可彼此在这一重要举动中所体现的气魄和视野。”

Calling Mao’s style of conversing as "self-deprecating", "casual and episodic" yet "purposeful", Lord said, "Rather than using elegant, long phrases like Zhou Enlai did, he would use analogies, metaphors and similes – brief-brushstroke comments that you had to sometimes interpret or decipher… We soon realized that he was outlining, with those broad and brief brushstrokes, the strategic policy guidelines which Zhou would then elaborate in great detail." "Clearly, Nixon and Mao recognized each other’s vision and courage in taking this important step," Lord said, pointing to Mao’s decision to meet Nixon immediately upon the latter’s arrival as a deliberate show of endorsement, not to be missed by anyone.

为访华疯狂做准备的总统

和长城上的“失语”

在尼克松出发去中国之前,洛德为他整理准备了六大本有关中国的资料。这些资料如果叠起来,“很容易就超过一英尺高”。尽管如此,在去往中国的途中,洛德还是不断收到来自尼克松的要求,让他提供更多信息。

“我从未见过有哪位总统像尼克松为这次访华做准备那样竭尽全力地为一次出访做准备。”洛德说。他注意到总统在他呈给他的资料的每一页上几乎都做了手写标记和注释。

Throughout the trip, Lord, who during preparations had put together six black briefing books which, if stacked, “would easily have been more than a foot tall”, continually received requests coming back from Nixon for more information. “I have never seen any president work as hard for a single event or trip as Nixon worked for this trip,” Lord said, pointing to the president’s handwritten marks and annotations on almost every page of the briefing books.

1972年,尼克松游长城。图源:美联社

然而这些准备在尼克松站在长城上面对众多美国媒体记者的那一刻似乎没有得到充分的体现。“这真是一座‘长’城,”是总统被问及现场感受时刚开始唯一能想到说的话。

However, all of this preparation didn't do the president much good when he got to the Great Wall. “It surely is a great wall,” was all he could initially muster when asked to comment on the scene.

“中国小子”

在2月28日在上海举行的告别晚宴上,尼克松举杯纪念“改变世界的一周”。当晚晚些时候,在尼克松的宾馆房间里举行了一场部分随访人员参加的小型会议。

据时任国务卿助理卜励德说,尼克松看上去“筋疲力尽但心满意足”。会议结束时,总统陪着卜励德走到门口,如长辈般把自己穿着花睡衣的手臂搭在卜励德的肩膀上,说:“你们这些‘中国小子’马上要忙活起来了!”

1973年,卜励德(左)抵达北京,与周恩来握手。图源:中国日报

1973年春天,卜励德再次来到中国,参与美国在北京的驻华联络处的筹建。1992年至2004年期间,卜励德担任总部在纽约的亚洲协会(Asia Society)的主席,再次与中国建立了紧密的关系。

At the farewell evening banquet on Feb 28, Nixon toasted the “week that changed the world”. Later that night, Nixon, who looked “drained but satisfied”, accompanied Platt to the door of his suite at the end of an informal meeting he held for some of the US staff. Placing “an avuncular arm” on his shoulder, Nixon said, “You China boys are going to have a lot more to do from now on.” Back in Beijing in the Spring of 1973, Platt was involved in “physically building” the new US Liaison Office. He was president of the New York-based Asia Society between 1992 and 2004.

另外一个“中国小子”洛德于1985年至1989年间任美国驻中国大使。

1971年7月9日,为了与中方协商尼克松访华事宜,基辛格携洛德和另外两位美国人秘密访华,当一行四人于日出时分由巴基斯坦进入中国领空时,飞机从全球第二高峰乔戈里峰旁边飞过。据说在每五个试图征服这座高峰的攀登者中,就有一人丧命于此。

1971年7月,周恩来总理会见秘密来华访问的美国总统国家安全事务助理基辛格。图源:新华网

“一切都让我内心激荡 – 展现在眼前的风景和我们此行即将与中国人一起带给世界的巨大震动和它的深远意义。”洛德说。

Between 1985 and 1989, Lord served as the US ambassador to China. Back on July 9, 1971, to negotiate with the Chinese on a possible visit by President Nixon, Kissinger led a four-men group, of which Lord was a member, on a secret visit to Beijing. As they were about to cross the Pakistani-Chinese border into Chinese aerial space at sunrise hour, their plane skirted the planet’s second-tallest peak, Qiaogeli Feng, known as K2 in the West, which had reputedly killed about one out in five climbers who had tried to reach its summit. “I was overwhelmed as much by the unraveling scenery as by the huge implications and repercussions that we were about to unleash together with the Chinese,” said Lord.

今天,关于那次访问著名的故事就是基辛格的胃部不适 (Kissinger’s upset stomach)。这位国家安全顾问在公开宣布的越南、泰国、印度和巴基斯坦四国之行的最后一站谎称胃疼并以此为由暂离公事。7月9日凌晨,当人们都认为他在“闭门修养”时,基辛格在洛德等人的陪同下在伊斯兰堡的一个机场登上了开往中国的飞机。在此之前的一段时间,巴基斯坦一直是中美沟通的桥梁。然而,这个故事还有一个插曲。

“具有讽刺意味的是,基辛格在印度期间肚子真的痛了,但他尽可能地掩盖这件事,因为他想让自己的‘病’留到巴基斯坦再发作。”洛德说。

Today the best-known story from that trip was Kissinger’s upset stomach. The national security adviser, on the last leg of a publicly announced trip that included Vietnam, Thailand, India and Pakistan, pleaded stomachache. While he was supposedly recuperating in a hill station, the Pakistanis, who had been acting as a major channel of communication between the Americans and the Chinese, ferreted him and his four-man group to an airport in Islamabad in the wee hours of July 9, 1971. However, there is a twist to that story. “Ironically, Kissinger came down with a real stomachache in India, he covered this up as much as possible because he wanted to save his real illness until he arrived in Pakistan,” Lord said.

“一只兴奋、好奇的熊猫”

总统随行人员之一尼古拉斯·卜励德(Nicholas Platt)形容《华盛顿邮报》的斯坦利·卡诺(Stanley Karnow)是“一只兴奋、好奇的熊猫”。在1972年的访问中,卜励德是美国国务卿威廉·罗杰斯(William Rogers)的特别助理。

1972年,周恩来在人民大会堂为尼克松一行举行接风宴会 图源:AP Photo/中国日报

在接受《中国日报》采访时,85岁卜励德回忆了尼克松一行抵达当晚,周恩来在人民大会堂为其举行的接风宴会的情景。“大会堂很大,身在其中感觉自己像电影布景中的蚂蚁。”他说。“美方的每个人都被邀请了,包括机组人员和行李搬运工——一大群人沿着大会堂的台阶拾级而上。”

“A joyful, inquisitive panda” was how Nicholas Platt, a member of the presidential entourage, describes Stanley Karnow of the Washington Post. For the 1972 trip, Platt was special assistant to US secretary of state William Rogers. Speaking to China Daily, the 85-year-old recalled the “magic” of the opening banquet on the night of Nixon’s arrival, hosted by Zhou and held at the Great Hall of the People, whose size “made one feel like an ant in a movie set”. “Everyone in the president’s party was invited, including aircrews and baggage handlers, flowing in an excited crowd up the staircase.”

随行一共有87位记者和二三十位技术支持人员。这些位置的竞争异常激烈。在讲述随行媒体人员经历的纪录片《任务:中国 – 改变世界的一周》中,《时代》(Time)杂志摄影记者德克·霍尔斯特德(Dirck Halstead)如是描述这种激烈程度:“为了登上出访的媒体专机,这些人即使把自己母亲推到飞机轮子底下也会在所不惜。”

A total of 87 journalists and a couple dozen technicians formed the US media group for the trip. And it’s not exaggerating to say that people had been crawling over themselves to get onboard. “We are talking about people who would very happily push their own mothers under the wheels of the plane to get on that trip,” said Dirck Halstead, a photojournalist for Time magazine, while being interviewed for the 2012 documentary Assignment: China – The Week That Changed The World.

1972年,尼克松夫妇游览北京十三陵 图源:AP PHOTO/中国日报

记者团的成员们为北京的严寒天气做好了充分的准备——每人都购置了秋衣秋裤(long johns)。然而令他们没有想到的是,在北京的绝大部分时间里,他们是待在暖气过足的室内的,这让他们燥热难耐。

The press had been warned about the cold weather of Beijing. “(Prior to the trip) we all went out and bought these long johns that became what we wore every day while we were in Beijing. The problem with that was that most of the time we were there, we were in these overheated state halls…” said Halstead.

另外一则“轶事”是由记者团中的一位女记者芭芭拉·沃尔特斯(Barbara Walters)在同一个纪录片中讲述的。沃尔特斯当年佩戴的隐形眼镜是需要用开水煮来消毒的,好几次她向中方服务人员要开水时,对方都为她送来了热的茶水。

“I remembered that I had asked for hot water because in those days I was boiling my contact lenses. And every time I ask for hot water, they sent me tea”, said Barbara Walters, another member of the media group.

美国媒体对中国的报道在本国得到了热烈回应。“这反映了美国人民对中国人民长久以来怀有的情感和尊重——我们在中国也感受到同样的东西。”洛德说,“尼克松政府的这一举动不仅在世界范围内广受好评,同时也提升了美国国内的士气。多年的动乱和种族冲突,加上代价高昂的越南战争,让美国人民疲惫不堪,士气低落。尼克松让他们看到,我们在世界舞台上仍然可以有出色的表现。”“美国人民本能地明白,这种开放对美国是有益的。”

周恩来与尼克松在杭州晚宴上举杯敬酒。
图源:BETTMANN/CORBIS/AP PHOTO/JOHN DOMINIS/THE LIFE PICTURE COLLECTION/GETTY IMAGES

The media coverage led to almost instant romance and euphoria. “This reflected an inbuilt respect and affection for the Chinese people, which certainly was reciprocated,” said Lord, “This move, clearly popular around the world, also lifted the morale. The American people, fatigued and demoralized by years of domestic turmoil and the costly Vietnam war, saw that we could still act dramatically on the world stage.” “They instinctively understood that this opening could yield diplomatic benefits for the United States.”

发布时间:2022年02月23日 来源时间:2022年02月22日
分享到:

留 言

网友留言为中美印象网网友个人的看法和感受,不代表本站观点

尼克松访华50周年
微博WEIBO

中美印象
官方微信