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黄仁伟:三件往事追忆傅高义教授

作者:黄仁伟   来源:北京大学中外人文交流研究基地  已有 469人浏览 字体放大  字体缩小

【小i导读】国之交在于民相亲。两国的友好交往一直伴随着中美关系的发展。美国著名中国问题专家傅高义教授是一位长期致力于发展健康稳定中美关系的学者,也是最早呼吁中美两国进行接触的美国学者之一。2021年2月,国务委员兼外长王毅在出席“对话合作,管控分歧——推动中美关系重回正轨”蓝厅论坛开幕式时曾表示,傅高义先生直到生命的最后时刻,仍在呼吁采取理性对华政策,并参与起草《中国不是敌人》的公开信。傅高义教授为推动中美两国人文交流、增进中美相互理解和友谊作出了不可磨灭的贡献。为纪念傅高义教授,切实推动中美学者的交流,中国人民对外友好协会和北京大学中外人文交流研究基地共同举办了“傅高义与中美关系研讨会”,会议邀请了中美双方数十位专家学者,学者们在发言中追忆与傅高义教授相处的往事,总结了傅高义教授为促进双边平等友好交流做出的努力,并对中美关系的发展建言献策。

黄仁伟:复旦大学一带一路全球治理研究院常务副院长,北京大学中外人文交流研究基地学术委员

各位新老朋友,上午好。我从上世纪90年代认识傅高义教授,到现在差不多30年了。听到傅高义教授去世的消息我很难过。我们两人保持长期交流,我认为傅高义先生对中美双边关系有着深刻的见解,是一位真正研究中国、中国文化和中国社会的学者,我想他比很多中国人都更了解中国。

Good morning, long-time friends and new friends. I knew Ezra Vogel almost 30 years, since early 90s. I was very sorry to hear of Vogel’s pass. Long-time exchange between we two gave me the impression of him having deep, deep knowledge of bilateral relations of the two countries, as a real scholar who studied China, Chinese culture and Chinese society so deeply that his understanding of China might be better than many Chinese.

我记得三次和傅高义教授进行了深入交流的难忘经历。

I remember three important events, where I went to talk with him and then have very good exchange.

第一次是1998年。他率领了一支来自美国他称之为“梦之队”的研究中国和中美关系的专家小组。这支“梦之队”包括哪些人呢?包括迈克·奥克森伯格、迈克·兰普顿、包道格和其他许多非常杰出的研究中国问题的学者。专家小组的组长是傅高义教授。他们来到上海,和我以前的领导汪道涵交谈。他们就中美关系交流了两天,为江泽民主席访美做准备。我记得那一次傅高义教授告诉汪老,我们将建立牢固且可持续的中美关系,建立面向21世纪的共同战略伙伴关系。而那时美国和中国的很多学者都在激烈争论:中国中美到底是敌是友。傅高义教授认为,中美两国应该和平共处、携手共进。他的想法得到专家小组所有成员的认可。所以他们回到美国后,写了一本书,叫作《与中国共处》。这本书非常非常重要。它为中美接触政策奠定了基调。所以我很钦佩这个专家小组,也很钦佩专家小组的组长傅高义教授。我想他的政策已经被时间和过去30年的中美双边关系所证明。特朗普政府的一部分人打破了这一政策,而这种做法已经被证明是大错特错。我们应该要恢复这个“梦之队”,并且要继承他们的思想。我认为傅高义教授的贡献巨大,我们应该把这本书再读一遍。

First one was 1998. He led a group of American experts on China and in China-US relations, which he called the “Dream Team”. What is this “Dream Team”? It included Michael Oksenberg, Michael Lampton, Douglas Paul and many other very distinguished China Studies scholars. The group leader was Ezra Vogel. They came to Shanghai and talked with my former boss Wang Daohan. They exchanged 2 days on China-US relations, preparing the visit of Jiang Zemin to the US. And Ezra, I remember that time, he told my boss that we are going to set up a solid, sustainable China-US relations, a common strategic partnership for the 21st century. And many scholars in the US, also in China, at that time were debating very heated, very hot, if China-US friend or enemy. And Ezra believed that China and the US should live together, work together. His idea was that was accepted by all the members of this group. So this group, when they went back to the US, they wrote the book called Living with China. This book was very, very important. It was the base of the policy of engagement between China and the US. So I admire this group and the group leader, Ezra Vogel. His policy designing, I think, has been proved by time and by the bilateral relationship in the last 30 years. And some people during the Trump administration broke this policy, and have been proven totally wrong. And we should repair, and we should keep the thinking of this group, this “Dream Team”. I think Vogel’s contribution was so great, and still we should read this book again.

第二个是他在他著名的《邓小平时代》一书中所说的。我访问哈佛以及他访问上海时,他和我谈了好几次。他把我的名字写进了他书中的序言,对我表达感谢,我感到非常荣幸。他将自己的名字签在他给我的书上,把我称作“尊敬的老朋友黄仁伟”,还询问了我对此书的意见。这些都不那么重要。最重要的是,在这本书中,他将邓小平的历史地位放在了一个很高的高度。他从不同的角度观察邓小平,所以这本书很客观,这是可以通过时间和实践得到检验的。无论赞成或不赞成邓小平的人,都应该去读这本书,通过这本书我们都可以看到邓小平改变了中国,改变了世界。

The second is what he spoke in his famous book, Deng Xiaoping's Time and the Transformation of China. He talked with me several times when I went to Harvard and he visited Shanghai. He put my name on the preface, and said thank you to me, I was very honored. He wrote his name and signed on the book he gave me called old and respected friend Huang Renwei, and asked my opinion. It's not so important. But the most important is, through this book, he put Deng Xiaoping’s historical position in a very high stack. He observed Deng Xiaoping by all different perspectives, so the book is very objective, and it can be tested by time and by practice. No matter whoever agree or disagree with Deng Xiaoping should read this book, and give the conclusion that Deng Xiaoping changed China, and changed the world.

第三个是我们共同从事中国学研究。我担任世界中国学论坛秘书长15年,他总共参加了三届我们的论坛,我们还给他颁发了中国学贡献奖。因为被授予这个奖项,他在中国学论坛上发表获奖感言,向我们讲述了他是如何从日本研究转向中国研究的,并把这两个研究进行了比较和总结。他不仅停留在经典研究上,而是转向了实践和现实的政策研究。这是一个真正的研究日本学和中国学的学者和专家。我想,能够像他这样,能深刻理解中日两种文化的学者是很少的。我知道另一个学者是斯卡拉皮诺。斯卡拉皮诺用自己对日本政治和日本图形分析的框架进行研究,不像傅高义教授是从文化和传统进行深层次的分析。可以说,基于中国研究和日本研宪,傅高义教授对两国有了更深刻的理解。

And the third is, we worked together on China’s studies. I was the secretary general of China’s Study Forum for more than 15 years. He joined our forum 3 times, and we gave him the reward of contribution on China studies, he was the receiver of this award. By Accepting this reward, he made a speech on China Studies Forum, and told us how he worked from Japanese studies to China studies, and compared the two studies and put down together. Then he not only stayed there on classical studies, but moved to practical and realistic policy studies. This is a real scholar and expert on Japanese and China studies. I think we have very few scholars like him who can both understand Chinese and Japanese culture so deeply. I know the other one was Scalapino. Scalapino used his own framework on jap political and jap graphic analysis, but not like Ezra, from the culture, from the deep traditional analysis. So Vogel’s China studies and Japanese studies can be put in this way, he had much deeper and profound understanding for the two countries.

现在,我应该总结一下我的想法。傅高义教授可以带给我们哪些启示?主要有三点:

Now, I should conclude my thinking. How can we learn from Ezra? That's 3 points.

第一,了解文化是理解一个国家的基础。傅高义教授对中国文化和日本文化的深刻理解是他研究日本和中国的坚实基础。

1. Understanding the culture is the base of understanding of a country. Ezra’s deep understanding of Chinese culture and Japanese culture is his solid base of China studies and Japanese studies.

第二,深刻认识中国的发展方向。傅高义教授对中国的开放和改革有着最深刻的理解。他的作品总是遵循中国的发展方向:中国正处在哪里,以及将走向何方。

2. The deeply understanding the direction of China's development. Ezra has the best understanding of China’s opening and reform. His works always followed its way, where China is going on and where it’s going to.

第三,傅高义教授是一位非常优秀的实地调查专家。他在中国做过扎实的实地调查工作。他为了了解中国改革开放的第一阶段在广东呆了10年。我想现在美国学者很少像傅高义教授在20世纪90年代在中国那样做实际调查了。这也是为什么他并不是从一个终点到另一个终点,而总是沿着坚实又正确的方向前进。在过去两年里,当特朗普政府和蓬佩奥发出许多负面声音时,傅高义教授站出来并声称中国不是美国的敌人,他组织百名学者在《华盛顿邮报》上发表公开信,向美国、社会公众和全世界传播这个观点。

3. He is a very excellent field survey expert. He has done plain survey works in China. He spent 10 years in Guangdong to understand the first stage of China’s opening and reform. I think now American scholars have less practical survey like Ezra, who did this work in the 1980s. So that's why he didn't move from this end to that end, he always kept on the solid and correct direction. So last 2 years, when Trump administration and Pompeo made many noises, Ezra stood out and made a full statement that China is not an enemy of the US, and he organized the hundred scholars open letter on the Washington Post, that was his idea, opening it to the united states, the public audience and the world.

这就是我非常敬佩他的原因。他是我的老师,也是研究中国问题最好的美国学者。

So that's why I really admire him. He is my teacher, the best America scholar on China’s studies.

发布时间:2021年05月11日 来源时间:2021年05月11日
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